The New Borrow Check in a Nutshell

Patrick Walton · January 21, 2013

If you've used Rust for any period of time, you've probably been bitten by the mysterious borrow check—the compiler pass responsible for preventing iterator invalidation, as well as a few other dangling pointer scenarios. The current iteration of the borrow check enforces a fairly complex set of rules. Because the rules were hard to understand and ruled out too many valid programs, we were never really satisfied with the analysis; without a simple set of rules to follow, programmers will get frustrated and give up. To remedy this, Niko has proposed a revamp of the borrow checker known as "Imagine Never Hearing the Phrase 'Aliasable, Mutable' Again". This has mostly been implemented in a pull request now, so I'd like to take the opportunity to explain the new rules. I'm particularly excited about this change because now the entire set of borrow check rules are simple enough to boil down to one principle.

Here's the rule that the new borrow check is in charge of enforcing: Whenever you take a pointer to an object, you may not modify that object as long as that pointer exists, except through that pointer.

(Strictly speaking, this is not all the new borrow check enforces, but the other errors the pass can produce are generally straightforward and simple dangling pointer errors. Also, I'm omitting the rules related to &const, as this rarely-used type of pointer is likely to be removed.)

For unique pointers (~) and borrowed pointers (&), this rule is enforced at compile time, without any runtime overhead. Here's an example:

let mut the_magic_word = Some(~"zap");

match the_magic_word {

    None => {}

    Some(ref word) {

        the_magic_word = None; // ERROR




Here, the line marked ERROR produces the error "assigning to mutable local variable prohibited due to outstanding loan". This happens because we violated the rule above—the line the_magic_word = None mutates the value the_magic_word while there exists a pointer to it (word).

Another example:

struct Foo {

    array: ~[int]


impl Foo {

    fn bar(&mut self) {

        for self.array.each |i| {

            self.array = ~[];  // ERROR





Again, the error is "assigning to mutable field prohibited due to outstanding loan". As before, it's traceable to a violation of the mutation rule: the line self.array = ~[] mutates the self.array field while a pointer (i) into it exists.

This example is interesting for a couple of reasons. First of all, it illustrates the way the Rust compiler can catch iterator invalidation issues without runtime overhead in many cases: here the compiler is able to detect that the i iterator, which has type &int, was invalidated, and rejects the program instead of permitting undefined behavior at runtime. Second, this example illustrates something not possible under the current borrow check regime that the new borrow check allows: namely, taking an immutable pointer to a field accessible through a &mut pointer. (An immutable pointer is needed to call the each method to prevent iterator invalidation.) More than any other, this restriction probably led to the greatest number of borrow check errors in practice, since it prevented iterating over any collections reachable from &mut pointers.

Now all of this works fine for & and ~ pointers, but what about managed boxes (@)? It turns out that immutable @ boxes are easy to deal with; since they can't be mutated at all, the borrow checker doesn't have to do anything to enforce the no-mutation rule. However, for @mut boxes, the situation is more complicated. For @mut boxes, the new borrow checker inserts runtime checks to enforce the pointer rules. Attempting to mutate an @mut box while a pointer to its contents exists results in task failure at runtime, unless the mutation is done through that pointer.

Interestingly, this is similar to the way various debug or safe STL implementations (for example, Microsoft's) guard against iterator invalidation. The differences are: (1) in Rust, the checks are automatically inserted by the compiler instead of built into each collection by hand; and (2) the checks are only needed for garbage collected data, as the compiler can perform the checks at compile time for other types of data.

There is one gotcha here, however. As implemented, if any pointer exists to any part of an @mut box, then the entire box cannot be mutated while that pointer exists. This means that this example will fail:

struct Dungeon {

    monsters: ~[Monster],

    total_gold: int


impl Dungeon {

    fn count_gold(@mut self) { // note `@mut self`, not `&mut self`

	    self.total_gold = 0;

	    for self.monsters.each |monster| { // pointer created here

		    self.total_gold +=;




Note that the iterator variable monster has type &Monster. This is a pointer to the inside of Dungeon, so the assignment to self.total_gold violates the mutation rule. Unfortunately, the compiler does not currently catch this, so the program will fail at runtime.

There are a couple of workarounds. The simplest way is to change @mut self to &mut self. Since there is no need to give out the @mut pointer for this operation, this is safe. Roughly speaking, the compile-time checks operate on a per-field basis, while the runtime checks operate on a per-box basis. So this change makes the operation succeed. Another possibility is to make total_gold into a local variable and assign to the field after the for loop.

Despite the fact that this error is easy to fix, I'm concerned about the fact that the compiler won't catch this kind of thing at compile time. So I think we should introduce a set of warnings that looks for common violations of this rule. It's impossible to make the warnings catch all failures—that's the reason why the check is done at runtime in the first place. (In general, trying to make the compiler reason about @ boxes is hard, since the compiler has no idea how many references to them exist.) But I suspect that we could make the analysis good enough to catch the majority of these errors in practice.

In any case, the take-away from all of this is that the borrow checker should be much easier and more transparent with this change. There's essentially just one straightforward rule to remember.

Twitter, Facebook